Friday, May 15, 2020

Managing Information Security Risks The Octave Approach

Alberts, C. Dorofee, A.(2003) Managing Information Security Risks: The OCTAVE Approach. New York: Addison Wesley. This work is a descriptive and yet process-oriented book on the concept of security risk assessment with a specific focus on new risk evaluation methodology, OCTAVE. The term OCTAVE is used to denote f Operationally Critical Threat, Asset, and Vulnerability Evaluation SM.It is important that organizations conduct a security risk evaluation in order for them to effectively evaluate their organizational practices as well as their installed technology base so as to make the appropriate decisions on the basis of the potential impact. Allen, J. H.; Barnum, S.; Ellison, R. J.; McGraw, G.; Mead, N. R. Software Security Engineering: A Guide for Project Managers. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley Professional, 2008 (ISBN: 978-0321509178). In this book Allen et al discusses the risk management plans for IT managers. The book notes that there is no silver bullet for information security risks. The best practices are what should be used in handling the IT risks. Berber, M.; von Solms, R.; Overbeek, P. Formalizing Information Security Requirements. Information Management and Computer Security 9, 1 (2001): 32-37. In this paper, Berber et al discusses ways of formalizing information security requirements. They noted that risk analysis and the concentration on threats, vulnerability and assets are the most effective means of protecting all IT resources. Biskup, J. Show MoreRelatedRisk Assessment Methodologies And Risk Management Strategies888 Words   |  4 PagesRisk Assessment Methodologies Risk assessment is a key component to Risk Management strategies. If this assessment is ignored or not done correctly, vulnerabilities can be overlooked or not addressed at all leaving systems exposed. 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A security riskRead MoreThe Essentials of Project Management65719 Words   |  263 PagesClassification of changes - Authorizationarrangements -Registrationand progressing -Formal procedures for external change requests- Formal procedure for internal change requests- Design freeze- The interchangeability rule - Emergency modifications 12 Managing progress Project progressingas a closed loop control system Progress monitoring and schedule updating - When the news is bad - Corrective measures - Progress meetings - Project progress reports - Project closure 225 Select bibliography Index

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Analysis of the Film The Boy in the Striped Pajamas...

The best fictional movie of World War II is â€Å"The Boy in the Striped Pajamas† directed by Mark Herman. The movie is based on the novel written by John Boyne and the story is told from a German child’s view during the Holocaust. The general message the director and writer so vividly portrayed is that of a child’s innocence and young friendship. â€Å"The Boy in the Striped Pajamas† has a good storyline, great choice in actors, and overall it was thought-provoking and effective in showing a different view of World War II, despite a few discrepancies in authenticity, the movie is a must see. What makes â€Å"The Boy in the Striped Pajamas† such an entertaining movie is the story. The storyline is about an 8 year old boy named Bruno who lives a†¦show more content†¦The director ended the film brilliantly focusing on the boys and showing crucial points this was provoking the audience to feel. Another reason this film works so well is the way each character is portrayed by the actors. The director was able to show the significance of each character while maintaining Bruno’s view point. The characters were very well selected, for example, Bruno is played by Asa Butterfield, a boy with dark hair and blue eyes, almost reminiscence of Hitler himself. Shmuel is played by Jack Scanlon, a small, frail looking boy that played the part beautifully. David Hayman was an older Jew named Pavel, the actor himself looked and played the part of a fragile prisoner. Bruno’s mother is played by Vera Farmiga, well known for her recent role in The Conjuring, has a way of captivating the audience through her emotional expressions. The actors themselves did a remarkable job portraying each of the characters based solely on John Boyne’s novel. Overall, the film did exactly what any good dramatic film would do and that is make the audience feel something. The tragedy of the Holocaust has never been fictionally depicted from a German child’s view until this movie. The depiction of how a child who is protected from certain elements war might have thought in that era makes this film unique. The unbelievable conclusion is what makes this film unforgettable. The most important scene in the film is the ending, when Bruno

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Economic Policy and Global Government Asian Nations

Question: Discuss about theEconomic Policy and Global Government for Asian Nations. Answer: Introduction Most of the Asian nations have witnessed rapid growth in the post-independence phase especially so in the last four decades or so. Amongst these nations, China leads the pack as it has completed transformed through a slew of economic reforms and at the present boasts its economy as the second largest economy in the world after only the USA (Yueh, 2010). The annual growth rate witnessed by the Chinese economy over the last three decades has been almost 10% which is phenomenal (IMF, 2012). While, a significant amount of praise for this stupendous growth goes to the opening up of the Chinese economy and related reforms, but it is imperative to analyse the role of macroeconomic policies in this regard. These macroeconomic policies assume an even more critical role in the wake of globalisation where the happenings in the economies of the other nations tend to have a significant impact on the Chinese economy (Bardhan, 2010). This impact needs to be understood in the wake of the export orie nted nature of the economy and hence its dependence on the overall global demand besides the domestic demand. In view of the above background, the aim of the current paper is to present the economic policies of China along with the measures taken by the government and other responsible authorities to maintain the macroeconomic stability in the country. Besides, the role of this macroeconomic stability to growth has also been analysed through the medium of the given paper. The national economic policy in context of China is under the control of the State Council which tends to set out the economic agenda over the long term and formulate the five year plan, which capture the goals in relation to the level of industrialisation, urbanisation and liberalisation of market that the country seeks to achieve in the medium term. This plan serves as a key tool for the fulfilment of the long term agenda of the government. The State Council frames the priorities and objectives of the plan along with the broad contours on how to achieve the same but the implementation of the same is left to the government agencies working at the central and local level (Qiang and Hu, 2014). In this regards, it is noteworthy that State Council does not limit to only developmental goals in the various five year plan but also tend to include the macroeconomic goals. This particularly includes target related to inflation, money supply coupled with GDP growth. The fact that these are fi xed by the State Council ensures that synchronization is maintained between the objectives to be met and the likely economic indicators. Additionally, since certain economic indicators tend to be counter balancing like growth and inflation, hence a delicate balance needs to be maintained between the two so that the long term national objectives can be met in an efficient manner (Ballantyne, Garner Wright, 2013). Therefore, annual assessments are carried out to rework the inflation and growth targets so that this delicate equilibrium could be maintained which becomes essential in the wake of a globalised economy which is more prone to global shocks. It is significant to note that China does not follow a monetary policy based on inflation targeting since inflation in China is not a fixed target and tends to be highly variable in accordance with the economic conditions and thus are periodically reviewed and determined by State Council (Ballantyne, Garner Wright, 2013). Another key aspect that falls within the ambit of the State Council is the determination of the managed float regime in context of the exchange rate. This has become even more significant post 2005 when it was decided that China would migrate from a fixed exchange rate against the USD to a more market linked and determined exchange rate but the process was to be carried out only gradually so as to ensure that export sector and i ndustrialisation was not adversely impacted (Hu, 2010). Additionally, the State Council also exhibits control over certain key sectors so as to ensure that long term objectives are not only met but the underlying development is also sustainable and proceeds in a socially desirable manner. This is most clearly evident through the active interference in the property market which regulates the prices so as not to hamper the construction activity and simultaneously ensure that affordable housing demand is met so that the people could actively contribute to growth of the nation (RBA, 2012). While, the State Council is the apex decision making body in term of laying down policy objectives, the implementation of the same is carried out by a host of government agencies. The PBC or Peoples Bank of China along with SAFE (State Administration of Foreign Exchange) are collectively responsible for the implementation of the policy related to exchange rate. In order to manage the exchange rate and also the supply of money in the economy, it is imperative that appropriate capital controls are erected on the flow of foreign capital (IMF, 2012). This has become significant in the last two decades when Chinese economy has opened up in a big way and has attracted significant chunk of investment in the form of FDI (Foreign Direct Investment). In order to manage the impact of this foreign money inflow and outflow, the PBC acting as the central bank uses various tools available in the monetary policy to achieve the objectives fixed by the State Council. It is noteworthy that without this stability lent by the PBC, the exchange rate movements would adversely impact the export competitiveness of China considering the huge inflow of foreign capital into China (Yueh, 2010). Further the government both at the central and local level are responsible for making the expenditure in line with the government priorities that are defined by the State Council. While the majority of the revenue is collected by the Central government, the local government has a fair share in the expenditure. In the expenditure of the local government, a fair share goes into infrastructure spending besides social security and education. In terms of the various investment projects to be pursued a critical role is played by the NDRC or National Development and Reform Commission. The public investment forms a crucial component of the fiscal policy and includes the sizable investments that are made in the state owned enterprises which have a significant role to play in the Chinese economy. From the above discussion, it is apparent that the macroeconomic framework are highly interconnected and integrated under the aegis of the State Council which ensures that all the various levels move towards a common goal (Turner, Tan Sadeghian, 2012). The stupendous growth shown by China was initiated through the reforms initiated in 1978 which during the initial phase of three years had an adjustment period during which centralised policies were introduced post which the economy had opened up gradually to foreign investments. Therefore, it found itself in a perfect position to cash in on the various outsourcing opportunities presented by the Western developed economies and gradually started strengthening the manufacturing industry. Besides, in order to fuel development of industries, infrastructure was the key focus which also attracted a plethora of FDI (Qiang Yu, 2014). During the 1990s, China witnessed export led growth which was highly concentrated towards the US. In this process, a strong enabling role was played by the macroeconomic stability led by a fixed currency exchange rate coupled with investments in the development of the enabling infrastructure. However, this increasing interaction with the outside world particula rly the West had adverse implications for stability and growth which was apparent during the Asian currency crisis of 1997. China was not much impacted by this crisis as the contribution of foreign money in China was mostly in the form of FDI which was comparatively more stable than hot money or FII (Foreign Institutional Investors) money (Bardhan, 2010). However, the growth in exports did slow down and also FDI inflows dropped. As a result, the Chinese authorities in order to sustain the growth focused on the weakness in the internal financial system which was reeling under the mounting debt of bad loans and an overdependence on US as a trade partner. Further, during the dot com bubble, in order to support the economy, there was a devaluation of the currency to enhance the export competitiveness even though China ran a huge capital and trade surplus. However, this was brought about by the stringent capital controls exhibited by the PBC (Turner, Tan Sadeghian, 2012). This coupled with increased focus on domestic demand enabled the Chinese economy to grow at the turn of the century. Arguably, the biggest challenge to Chinese economic growth came from the global economic crisis which plummeted global demand and led to reduced liquidity in the global market. However, through the government support led by the State Council, China was abl e to emerge from this crisis (Wen, 2013). The management of the exchange rate to fuel economic growth during the last decade is apparent from the graph shown below. It is apparent that at the turn of the century, there was no appreciation of the Chinese Renmindi so as to provide support to exports. However, fuelled by a bounce back from 2004 onwards, in late 2005, there was an appreciation of the economy which continued to the beginning of the crisis. Further, during the economic crisis, there was no appreciation of the Renmindi in a bid to provide support to the economy. However, the process of appreciation commenced from 2010, when there was a bounce back in the global economy backed by the government stimulus. Hence, it is evident that the exchange rate has played a key enabling role for economic growth as China becomes more exposed to global shocks (Ballantyne, Garner Wright, 2013). The contribution to the GDP during the last decade also highlights the support of the macroeconomic stability in the overall economic growth as shown below. The above graph clearly indicates that from 2004 to 2007, the contribution of net exports to the GDP swelled. Further, during these years, the domestic consumption also boomed while the investment growth remained relatively constant. In 2008, there is a drop in GDP growth due to drop in net exports and consumption growth fuelled by the global financial crisis. As a result, in 2009, there was a spurt in investment primarily by the government so as to provide stimulus to the economy on the lines of Keynesian economics (Bardhan, 2010). This eventually tapered down as consumption and net exports showed signs of recovery. Therefore, it is apparent from the above graph that the government policy tends to be in line with the demands of the economy which has ensured that economic growth remains sustainable. This is also reflected in the inflation and unemployment figures which have remained stable as suitable measures have been undertaken in an integrated manner so as to provide a facilitati ng environment to the economic growth (Yueh, 2010). Based on the above discussion, it is apparent that the underlying policy making framework that has been existing in China is exceptionally integrated in a hierarchical manner which ensures that the effort of all involved agencies and authorities is directed towards common goals. In this regards, while the State Council decides on the policy objectives and provides broad contours about the same, the implementing agencies like the PBC along with the state operated enterprises and also the government at various levels ensures that the same is implemented so as to achieve the targets offered by the State Council. While achieving the stated developmental goals, both economic and social, a key importance is offered to the macroeconomic stability which is apparent from the fact that decision in this regard is undertaken by the State Council and not left to the PBC to decide. Besides, with the opening up of the economy, it has become more susceptible to influence from external shocks and the refore prudent measures have been undertaken in the past so as to ensure that the economic growth remains sustainable. This has been demonstrated in the aftermath of the Asian currency crisis along with the global financial crisis. On the basis of the same, it may be fair to conclude, that indeed for China, the macroeconomic stability has proved to a significant contributory factor to economic growth. References Ballantyne A, Garner M Wright M 2013, Developments in Renminbi Internationalisation, RBA Bulletin, June, pp 6574. Bardhan, P 2010, Awakening Giants, Feet of Clay: Assessing the Economic Rise of China and India, 2nd eds., Princeton University Press; USA Hu X 2010, Exchange Rate Regime Reform and Monetary Policy Effectiveness, Available online from (Accessed on November 29, 2016) IMF (International Monetary Fund) 2012, Country Chapter: Peoples Republic of China, in Annual Report on Exchange Rate Arrangements 2012, Available online from (Accessed on November 29, 2016). Qiang, G Yu Y 2014, The Wealth of China: Untangling the Mystery of the World's Second Largest Economy, 2nd eds., CN Times Book, Shanghai RBA (Reserve Bank of Australia) 2012, Box A: Chinas Residential Property Market, Statement on Monetary Policy, February, pp 1416. Turner G, Tan N Sadeghian D 2012, The Chinese Banking System, RBA Bulletin, September, pp 5363 Wen J 2013, Report on the Work of the Government, Address to the First Session of the Twelfth National Peoples Congress, Available online from (Accessed on November 29, 2016). Yueh, L 2010, The Economy of China, 3rd eds., Edward Elgar Publishers, London

Monday, April 13, 2020

Intercultural Communication in Phoenix Management Services Essay Example

Intercultural Communication in Phoenix Management Services Essay Intercultural communication is known as the base for international business. This paper will analyze intercultural communication focusing on Phoenix Management Services which is an organization with multicultural people. I think I can bring strategies to increase their intercultural communication skills so that they can intermingle with other individuals from any part of the world. Literature Review I will begin by examining the history of intercultural communication and examine some of the theories by researchers. The study of intercultural communication was initiated by Edward Hall and others followed suit in the 1950’s. Hall is regarded as the founder of intercultural communication which he initiated in 1951, when he started working at the Foreign Service Institute. The Foreign Service Institute was then in charge of handling cultural information in the United States. Intercultural communication did not have any resources for use in the 1960’s (Condon Yousef, 1975). It is in the 1970’s that sources, journals and societies specializing in intercultural communication emerged. Hall looked at communication using the concept of low and high context messages depending on the importance of the context of the message. In a low context message the information in the message is explicit with no unspoken or implied information. While in the high context message most of the meaning is understood and passed on by the circumstances, relationships and non-verbal messages (Hall, 1976, Habke Sept, 1993). We will write a custom essay sample on Intercultural Communication in Phoenix Management Services specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Intercultural Communication in Phoenix Management Services specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Intercultural Communication in Phoenix Management Services specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer In the low context cultures, everything is communicated by explicit information while in a high context culture communication depends on the subtleness and circumstances. This theory by Hall lowers the chances of causing offense in intercultural communication for if one has a view of a culture; they are able to take measures to adjust to another culture thus improving the chances of precise communication (Hall, 1976) Other researchers who have contributed to the intercultural communication theory are William Gudykunst and Young Yum Kim. As a navy specialist deployed in Japan, Gudykunst came up with he theory on intercultural communication while training others. Kim’s interest in communication aspects of the cultural adjustments of immigrants stems from growing up in Korea and immigrating to the United States. The two focus mainly on theoretical issues on intercultural communication. They think to understand the process of intercultural communication and improve on it effectiveness, there is a need for conceptual tools to understand what is happening (Gudykunst Kim, 1997). In their theory they clearly show that all communication is in some sense intercultural. For instance the difference between one interacting with a colleague at work who shares their ethnicity and language, and their interaction with a visiting person who shares neither is not a qualitative difference, but merely a question of the degree of strangeness. This theoretical admission is important because Gudykunst and Kim downgrade ethnicity by paving the way for a distinct understanding of culture operating at every level. Gudykunst and Kim propose four categories of culture-relation influences on the communication process. There are the cultural influences which include rules, norms and values. They classify norms and rules as sets of expected behavior for particular situations (Gudykunst Kim, 1997). Socio-cultural influences which also include norms, rules and values are keyed to social roles such as an employer or doctor and not to situations. Psycho-cultural influences are those gained by our personal experience and psychological makeup and not from our culture or society. Lastly, environmental influences relate to our expectations of behavior in a given physical environment. Gudykunst and Kim contend that high and low contexts are cultural influences while ethnocentrism and prejudice are potential psychocultural influences. They observe that though one tendency such as individualism may hold at a cultural level, any individual within that culture is free to prefer collectivism. The key strength to their theory is a new concern in to incorporate research by others and to free the individual. Ron Scollon and Suzanne Wong Scollon like Gudykunst and Kim, try to set out and apply a theoretical structure for intercultural communication. Nonetheless their goals are less ambitious. They therefore focus on interaction in formal professional context. The Scollon’s focal point is discourse systems which involve four elements; a group of ideological norms, distinct socialization processes, a regular set of discourse forms, and a set of suppositions about face interactions within the discourse system. Many systems they say cut across cultural divides. For Scollon and Wong Scollon, intercultural communication is better considered interdiscourse communication. They pay attention to describing different prominent discourse systems focusing on those used in professional communication. They reckon that if we appreciate the discourse systems used by other individuals we will converse with them well. (Scollon Wong Scollon, 1995) Analysis of Phoenix Management Services The organization I have chosen to examine is Phoenix Management Services (PMS) a property management company where I recently worked. Phoenix Management Services, Inc. was started in 1996 and so far it runs more than 25,000 units in the state of Florida. I would like to be involved with this company and improve their skills and find techniques and strategies to develop skills to interact with other cultures. While at PMS I learnt that understanding the cultural differences in a company can be the distinction between professional success and failures in meeting your goals. Exceptional intercultural communication skills are vital in today’s independent world. To improve business performing and competition one should be able to communicate freely with workmates that are representing different cultures. Daily at PMS we worked with people from different cultural backgrounds with accompanying challenges and opportunities. From my experience at PMS, if communication is healthy there is a rise in productivity and this enhances performance, originality and growth of the organization. Communication is multifaceted making it difficult to convey any message which lacks fundamental cultural connotations. Disparities in culture do have a great impact on business and social communications. By PMS applying intercultural communication skills at work it has greatly improved many interactions amongst employees. Recommendations to improve communication at Phoenix Management Services The culture in which people group up in determines how they express themselves and how they communicate with others. At work, cultural stereotypes can create tensions that lower job satisfaction and productivity. Both employee and employer benefit when they confront and move beyond their prejudices (Fantino, 2006). Discarding cultural prejudices is by no means easy and it takes time and strength of mind. I think the following strategies at PMS can help increase their intercultural communication skills in order for them to interact with other individuals from any part of the world. It is important to regard all employees as equals’ in spite of their different cultural origins, thus it better to focus on their capabilities other than their cultural origins. It is important to respect personal names, call people by the name they prefer to be called, learn how to pronounce each name correctly and also the correct order in which to say it. Turning fear into curiosity is essential. Instead of being suspicious of other groups ask yourself what all of you can learn if you went beyond your differences. Steer clear of negative statements about employees from one culture. The fact that a person made a particular mistake is not an indicator that all the people from that culture are incompetent. It is also important to have an open mind when dealing with employees from different cultures rather than distorting what you know about that culture based on a preconceived view of the world. It is not proper to believe that if an employee is unable perform a articular task properly that they will not be able to do a different one well. Given a chance to prove them, they may excel in something else. On the other hand if an employee is excellent at a given task it does not necessarily mean they will do well in the next task. In intercultural communication it is important that you avoid discriminating against employees from different cultural groups. Always ensure that they wor k under favorable conditions so that they do not feel like outcasts but feel that they are part of the company. Make sure that their colleagues are aware of the company’s policy against discrimination to avoid such incidents in the organization. It is good to use appropriate language when communicating with employees from different cultures. It pays to do a little research on what language use is satisfactory in their culture to avoid being offensive when communicating with them. It is important to avoid making judgments based on the accent, timing, and pace of a person’s speech. Different ways of speaking may strike you as haughty, subservient, or even insulting. Try to view people objectively, even if their accents seem peculiar and do not make fun of them or crack uncalled for jokes about them but instead choose to appreciate their diversity. Always endeavour to clarify cultural regulations to employees from different cultural backgrounds to make communication at the work place easy. This will enable these employees understand clearly what is expected of them while working in the organization. When communicating with employees from different cultures try to observe them and if there is something that is not clear do not be afraid to ask them so that they make it clear for better understanding. Do not be quick to pass judgment upon them. Take into account English barriers when working with employees who are not fluent in English considering that maybe it is not their first language. Take necessary measures to make sure that the message being passed across is understood as intended. Bear in mind the fact that it is strenuous to think and speak in two different languages all day long especially if English is not your first language. In intercultural communication nonverbal language is essential since it expresses emotions, objectives and responses. Go an extra mile and take on the responsibility of learning nonverbal sign of different cultures and consider the message they send. The concept of time is looked at in varied ways in some cultures, therefore it is very important to be conscious of this. When faced with a dilemma of an employee’s perception of time it is proper to discuss this and come up with a mutual understanding. It is also good to adjust interpersonal space requirements, if it is deemed necessary. Depending upon cultural practices, people may feel uncomfortable when someone is either standing close by or far off. Always take note of how close they stand when they approach and follow suit. It is also vital to pay attention to how people react when someone moves close. Finally in intercultural communication it is vital to be cautious regarding physical contact. Observe how individuals from different cultural backgrounds relate with people from their own culture. Take note also of how they interact with people in authority or of different social status. It is worth noting that excellent communication skills are useful in all intercultural communication. These skills are needed today in any working environment of an organization. It is the responsibility of those involved in the work place to enhance these intercultural communication skills. Conclusion In conclusion, the best thing about intercultural communication is the way it has acculturated our thinking of communication. Intercultural communication research took no real account of culture until the initiative by Edward Hall. Now there is a wealth of research interest in the matter. This is of theoretical benefit, because anything else may be significant in communication, and however displeasing the idea of culture may be, it remains true that culture influences communication and a full theory of communication must take account of it. More importantly, research in intercultural communication has led to increasing sophisticated investigations into cultures far removed from our own. This has resulted in greater awareness, and potentially greater understanding. Understanding is the key to good intercultural communication and this is a good thing. Special challenges to intercultural relationships include coping with differences, tending to stereotypes, dealing with apprehension, and having to give details about ourselves to strangers. References Condon, J. C. Yousef, F. S. (1975). An Introduction to Intercultural communication. New York: Macmillan Fantino, A. M. (2006). Cultures at Work: Intercultural Communication in the Canadian Workplace. Edmonton, Alberta: The Muttart Foundation Gudykunst, W. B. Kim, Y. Y. (1997). Communicating with Strangers: An Approach to Intercultural Communication (3rd ed. ) New York: McGraw-Hill Habke, A. , Sept, R. (1993) Distinguishing Group and Cultural Influences in Inter-Ethnic Conflict: A Diagnostic Model. Canadian Journal Communication. University of Calgary. Retrieved from http://hoshi. cic. sfu. ca/calj/cjc/BackIssues/18. 4/sept. html Hall, E. T. (1976). Beyond Culture. New York: Doubleday Scollon, R. W ong Scollon, S. (1995). Intercultural Communication: A Discourse Approach. Cambridge: Blackwell

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

Islams Role In The Development Of Science Religion Essay Example

Islams Role In The Development Of Science Religion Essay Example Islams Role In The Development Of Science Religion Essay Islams Role In The Development Of Science Religion Essay The most common misconception about Islam is the thought that the faith inspires retardation ; Muslims are believed to be opposed to modernness, comparing it with foul and iniquitous ways. This misconception, nevertheless, stems largely from the misinterpretation between Western and Islamic civilizations. The West, sing itself as the prototype of modernness, assumes that Muslims knocking Western orgy must be opposed to come on itself. In world, nevertheless, the reaching of Islam signalled a important transmutation in the Middle Eastern part. The Prophet Muhammad s instructions served as the accelerator for noteworthy developments in the part, peculiarly in the Fieldss of scientific discipline, jurisprudence and literature. This paper posits that Islam plays a important function in the development of scientific discipline, jurisprudence and literature in the Middle East. To turn out so, this paper shall get down with a brief background of Islam to function as the foundation of the survey. The survey shall non dig into inside informations of cabals in the faith, given the restraint and focal point of the paper. The survey shall so look into the parts of Islam to three specific facets of Middle Eastern development, viz. scientific discipline, jurisprudence and literature. Surely, Islam s parts are non limited to these three countries, but they are important adequate to reflect the overall impact of the faith on the part. Muslimism: A Brief Review Prophet Muhammad was a shepherd and bargainer who sought consolation from speculation. He frequently retreated to the caves environing Mecca for personal contemplation, and it was in one of these caves that he received the disclosure of Allah. Islam is the complete resignation of a individual to the will of God, and Muhammad began to prophesy his new faith to the folks of Mecca. He was met with ill will and derision and was forced to fly to Medina. Slowly, Muhammad began to garner followings and protagonists, finally suppressing Mecca and engaging a campaign to change over the folk of the Middle East. The disclosures of Allah to Muhammad are recorded in the Quran, the Muslim sanctum book. Like Judaism and Christianity, Islam is monotheistic. More significantly, Islam really recognises cardinal figures from these faiths, claiming that Abraham, Moses and even Jesus were besides Prophetss of Allah. Muhammad, nevertheless, was the last prophesier and Islam is hence the right faith. Interestingly, these three faiths portion pilgrims journey shrines and noteworthy characteristics but are frequently at odds, largely as a consequence of political relations more than anything else. Due to his finding and turning figure of protagonists, by the clip of Muhammad s decease, his mission to change over the Arabian Peninsula had mostly succeeded. Islam and Science Science is unfailingly equated with modernness. Even in the United States, the thought of scientific discipline holding with faith is hard to grok ; conservative positions frequently times clash with scientific discipline due to its irreverence towards the dictates of religion. How so, could a faith such as Islam ( which, as mentioned earlier, is equated with immovable antiquity ) have fostered the development of modern scientific discipline in the Middle East? It must be understood that Islam is non simply a faith to its followings ; it is the guideline for all countries of life and idea. As such, even the development of cognition is linked to the apprehension that nature is an extension of Allah, and cognizing Allah means exercising attempt to cognize more about the natural universe ( Iqbal 2007 p.10 ) . As such, Islam gave rise to a batch of scientists both Arab and non-Arab chiefly because of its accent on the accretion of cognition. Some noteworthy scientists include Ibn Alhazen, male parent of the scientific method ( precursor to empiricist philosophy ) ; Ibn al-Shatir posited the Maragha Theory that predated Copernicus lunar theoretical account, and ; al-Kwarizmi criticised the Ptolemic theoretical account by observing its failings right ( Iqbal 2007 ) . Apart from these single accomplishments, Islamic swayers supported the development of surveies in uranology, mathematics and natural philosophies, supplying the foundation that allowed these scientists to set forward their theories and contribute to the development of scientific cognition. Islam and Law The Shariah is Islamic jurisprudence the Muslims keep it sacred and it remains one of the most outstanding legal systems in the universe today. It is non that the Middle East did non hold any signifier of legal system prior to Islam. What is important, nevertheless, is that Islam brought about interesting and modern alterations to the Torahs that were present in the folk of the Middle East. For illustration, prior to Islam, the jurisprudence dictated that hubbies could disassociate their married womans instantly. The adult male had the concluding say in this affair, and the adult female was merely left to bear the brunt of the terminal of a bad matrimony. With the debut of the Sharia, the values that were of import to Islam became important in jurisprudence every bit good. With the Sharia, a adult male would now hold to wait for three months ( or until childbirth, if the adult female was pregnant ) before divorce could be finalised. This was a agency to deter divorce and let the twosome to accommodate during the period ( Hallaq 2005 p.23 ) . Besides, the jurisprudence was unprecedented in that it introduced the fiscal independency of adult females, leting them to retain their doweries as personal belongings. Furthermore, they were allowed to hold all belongings she personally acquired during matrimony to stay entirely her belongings, without holding to postpone to her hubby ( Hallaq 2005 p.23 ) . These are some illustrations of Islam impacting the jurisprudence. Islam and Literature Of the three facets mentioned in this paper, this country is the most apprehensible in the sense that faith frequently inspires poesies, peculiarly due to the ecstatic nature of the faithful. Once inspired, a poet could compose heroic poems in congratulations of his God, and therefore the fact that Islam had a important impact on the development of literature comes as no daze. Apart from the development of verse forms and wordss, nevertheless, Islam besides contributed greatly to the constitution of the hero tradition in Middle Eastern literature ( Renard 1999 p.43 ) . This includes romantic and/or royal heroes, every bit good as spiritual 1s. Some illustrations include the publicity of the Bedouin ideal, transformed from its original mobile warrior into a spiritual theoretical account. This, nevertheless, does non intend that the common people qualities of the hero are sacrificed merely to carry through the purpose of the author ( which may be misconstrued as some signifier of spiritual white-washing of folklore ) . For illustration, the common people hero Miqdad is a well-known Bedouin character. His ulterior portraitures include his defense mechanism of the Islamic religion every bit good as exhibits values in support of Islamic jurisprudence, but without decreasing his character as a fierce and fearless Bedouin. As Renard ( 1999 p.47 ) points out, the Islamic impact on literature enhanced folklore, non submerged it. It is besides noteworthy that Islam brought about the debut of a new sort of genre having spiritual heroes. One really good illustration is Muhammad himself. The narratives of his escapades through the universe and beyond uncover a new sort of heroic poem. It was a combination of literature and religious instruction, chronicling Muhammad s instructions and uniting them with fiction in order to make an piquant narrative. The Miqyarat , for illustration, chronicles Muhammad s journey into enlightenment and find ( Renard 1999 p.105 ) . This is one of the interesting developments in Middle Eastern literature that would non hold occurred if non for Islam. Decision Having discussed the following countries of development that were impacted greatly by Islam, it is now safe to reason that Islam plays a important function in the development of scientific discipline, jurisprudence and literature in the Middle East. What so is the significance of this decision? As mentioned earlier, Islam is one of the most misunderstood faiths in the universe at present. What is known of Islam is the debauched version peddled by political operators, seeking to use the faith to incorporate the multitudes. The wrong reading of jehad , for illustration, by terrorist administrations delivers a really negative message about Islam. Hopefully, through this paper, a more positive apprehension of Islam and Muslims shall go possible.

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Choose one Experiential Project Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Choose one Experiential Project - Essay Example In a criminal justice system, these three separate outfits work together both as the primary means of maintaining the rule of law in society and under the rule of law. America is recognized for having one of the most advanced judicial systems in the entire universe. Every day a large number of people, including police officers, accused criminals, judges, lawyers, and government officials, play a part in this system, attempting to work for justice and settle disputes. What makes the American justice system more incredible is that it has the capacity to function successfully in a country which is diverse and large. Police officers, judges, lawyers, and government officials play a significant part in the legal system, a role that is frequently unknown, disregarded, or misunderstood by most members of the public. The interview with the police officer was conducted over a period of three days. The interview had to go on for three days because the meeting could only take place in the eveni ng after work and the police officer had to go to his evening part time occupation. The police officer has been in the profession for almost fifteen years. The police officer is medium build and almost six feet tall. He is also married and has two children. In contrast to his build and tall physique, he is soft-spoken, and never responded to my questions without a bit of a pause. Nevertheless, he courteously refused his identity to be revealed (Fuller, 2005). This paper will be in form of a narrative based on the police officer’s interview regarding his views on the criminal justice system. The paper will look at whether the criminal justice system works, in what ways it does not work, and the future of the criminal justice system. The paper will also compare and contrast what the police officer says with relevant sections of the text. The conclusion of the paper will address lessons derived from speaking with the police officer. In the view of the police officer, the United State’s criminal justice system largely works, but there are ways in which it does not work. The police officer also gave me his views on the future of the criminal justice system. According to the police officer, one of the things that make the criminal justice system work is a carefully ordered and balanced hierarchy. A number of different federal courts deal with issues that are related to federal law and every state has its specific set of courts which adapt to the desires of the people. In addition, all through the different stages of the process, there is constitutional protection to make sure that the liberties of the convicted and accused are respected. These protections balance the fundamental liberties of the accused and the need of the criminal justice system to probe and take legal actions against criminals (Fuller, 2005). Moreover, the police officer argued that there are a number of rights obtained from the constitution which safeguards the accused from cruelty and overreaching from law enforcement officers. The most significant of these rights are arguably the Fourth Amendment which prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures and the Miranda advisement. The Fourth Amendment which prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures prevents law enforcement officers from searching a criminal suspect or his premises without a search warrant. Nevertheless, the officers asserted that there are exemptions for explanatory situations, for example, when a police